March 16, 1912 Thelma Catherine “Pat” Ryan Nixon born in Ely, Nevada.
January 9, 1913 Richard M. Nixon born in Yorba Linda, California.
June, 1934 Nixon graduates from Whittier College (second in class).
June, 1937 Nixon graduates from Duke Law School (third in class).
November, 1946 Nixon beats incumbent Jerry Voorhees to become Whittier’s Congressman.
November, 1948 Nixon re-elected as Congressman, without opposition.
November, 1950 Nixon beats Helen Gahagan Douglas to become California’s Senator.
November, 1952 Nixon elected vice president when Dwight Eisenhower beats Adlai Stevenson.
November, 1956 Nixon re-elected vice president when Eisenhower again beats Stevenson.
November, 1960 Nixon loses presidential race to John F Kennedy.
November, 1962 Nixon loses race to become California’s governor to Edmond G. “Pat” Brown. Announces end of political career in stormy press conference.
November 22, 1963 JFK assassinated in Dallas, Vice President Lyndon Johnson becomes President; 16,000 US troops in Vietnam.
November, 1964 Barry Goldwater loses to President Johnson; Democratic majorities in Congress reach record proportions. 23,000 US troops in Vietnam.
June, 1968 Robert F Kennedy announces candidacy for Presidency, challenging Eugene McCarthy and Vice President Hubert Humphrey who also are running for the Democratic nomination.
June 6, 1968 RFK assassinated in Los Angeles after winning California primary.
November, 1968 Nixon beats Humphrey and is elected president, but Republicans fail to gain control of either House of Congress. 536,000 US Troops in Vietnam.
July 19, 1969 Mary Jo Kopechne drowns in car driven by Senator Edward Kennedy in Chappaquiddick, Massachusetts.
April 30, 1969 US Troop strength in Vietnam peaks at 543,400.
August, 1969 Investigative reporter Clark Mollenhoff joins White House staff as ombudsman. Title is deputy counsel, reporting to Ehrlichman.
May, 1970 Mollenhoff’s departure announced, effective in July. He returns to prior position of heading Washington bureau office of Des Moines Register.
July, 1970 John Dean appointed counsel to the president.
February, 1971 White House Taping System is installed.
May, 1971 Creation of Committee to Re-Elect the President (CRP).
June, 1971 Egil Krogh hires Gordon Liddy onto White House Staff (from Treasury), where he soon joins newly established Plumbers Unit.
June 13, 1971 The New York Times publishes its first installment of the Pentagon Papers.
September 4, 1971 Liddy and Howard Hunt supervise Plumbers break-in into Dr. Lewis Fielding’s office, who is Daniel Ellsberg’s psychiatrist. Ellsberg leaked the Pentagon Papers to The New York Times.
October, 1971 Dean assigned responsibility for developing campaign intelligence operation for CRP; soon recruits Liddy to design and implement it.
December 8, 1971 Liddy leaves White House staff to become CRP general Counsel, with added responsibility for developing campaign intelligence plan.
January 27, 1972 First Liddy presentation in John Mitchell’s AG office, Dean and Jeb Magruder present ($1 million plan to include “mugging, bugging, kidnapping and prostitution”).
February 4, 1972 Second Liddy presentation in Mitchell’s office, again with Dean and Magruder present ($500,000 plan, including specific targets for bugging).
March 1, 1972 Mitchell resigns as attorney general to become head of CRP.
March, 1972 Charles Colson calls Magruder to urge proceeding with Liddy intelligence plan.
March, 1972 Magruder disburses $37,000 to Liddy to cover expenses incurred to date for intelligence plan.
March 27, 1972 Liddy moves from CRP general counsel to become counsel to CRP Finance Committee, but retains intelligence plan responsibilities.
March 30, 1972 Magruder and Fred LaRue meet with Mitchell in Miami to discuss Liddy’s revised intelligence plan, now priced at $250,000. Stories differ stories as to whether plan is approved. (Dean not present).
May 28, 1972 First illegal entry into DNC offices at Watergate office building, taps planted on phones of Larry O’Brien and Spencer Oliver.
June 5, 1972 Grand Jury 1 empanelled.
June 17, 1972 Second illegal entry into DNC offices in Watergate office building, supposedly to repair tap on O’Brien’s phone. James McCord. CRP’s head of security, and Cubans arrested on site, Liddy and Hunt shortly thereafter. Papers announce Nixon’s lead over McGovern is largest poll margin in history.
June 19, 1972 Dean sent to CRP to “contain” the problem; meets with Liddy at 11:15am that morning and with Mitchell, Magruder, and others in Mitchell’s apartment that evening to begin orchestrating cover-up.
June 20, 1972 First recorded Nixon/Haldeman conversation following Watergate arrests. Haldeman notes say, ‘Watergate’, but conversation lost (18½ -minute Gap). GSA brings contents from Hunt’s safe to Dean’s office for his review.
June 23, 1972 Second recorded Nixon/Haldeman conversation following Watergate arrests. President agrees to Dean recommendation to use CIA to restrict FBI investigation (later termed “Smoking Gun“). Watergate grand jury I begins to hear evidence concerning the break-in.
June 28, 1972 Liddy fired from CRP for refusing to answer FBI questions about Break-in. John Ehrlichman and John Dean give Acting FBI Director a portion of the contents from Howard Hunt’s EOB safe that contain efforts to reconstruct a cable supposedly connecting the Kennedy administration to the 1973 assassination of Vietnam President Ngo Dinh Diem.
July 1, 1972 Mitchell resigns as head of CRP, supposedly because of difficult spouse, Martha.
July 14, 1972 Hugh Sloan resigns as CRP Treasurer.
August 16, 1972 Magruder testifies before grand jury.
August 28, 1972 Dean tells Krogh that the President wants him to lie in his grand jury testimony before the U.S. Attorney about people connected with the Fielding break-in. Krogh then provides sworn deposition before U.S. Attorney. Colson testifies before grand jury.
August 30, 1972 RN announces Dean has conducted investigation into Watergate and concluded no one from WH was involved. (First Dean Report)
September 13, 1972 Silbert submits 21 page Prosecutive Memorandum on the Watergate break-in to Petersen. Magruder again testifies before grand jury.
September 14, 1972 Mitchell testifies before grand jury.
September 15, 1972 US Attorney indicts seven original Watergate burglars (Liddy, Hunt, McCord, Barker and three other Cubans).
October, 1972 Senator Edward Kennedy launches Watergate investigation by Senate Judiciary Subcommittee on Administrative Practices and Procedures, which he chairs, assigning five staff members.
November 7, 1972 Nixon re-elected to second term, beating George McGovern by 61% majority, the second largest margin in US history. 24,000 US Troops in Vietnam
December, 1972 Reporter Clark Mollenhoff has series of meetings with Sirica, urging aggressive role as judge in break-in trial, writes column predicting such conduct and praising him for it.
January 8, 1973 Watergate break-in trial begins (Hunt/Liddy/McCord and the Cubans).
January 11, 1973 Hunt pleads guilty.
January 15, 1973 All four Cubans plead guilty.
January 30, 1973 Liddy and McCord, only two defendants not to have pleaded guilty, convicted on all counts. Sirica calls for Senate investigation and submits list of people to be called before grand jury. Haldeman testifies before grand jury.
February 7, 1973 Senate establishes Select Committee on Presidential Campaign Activities (Ervin Committee), replacing Kennedy investigation, limiting scope to 1972 election on party-line vote.
March 17, 1973 Sam Dash, majority counsel, meets with Judge Sirica and urges maximum sentencing with possible reduction conditioned on defendants’ cooperation with Ervin Committee.
March 19, 1973 McCord delivers letter to Judge Sirica alleging cover-up. (Not publicly released until March 23rd).
March 20, 1973 Sirica invites Dash to break-in sentencing hearing.
March 21, 1973 Dean’s “cancer on the Presidency” speech to Nixon, Nixon discusses possibility of meeting Hunt’s monetary demands. In meeting that afternoon, Nixon notes need to go before grand jury rather than Ervin Committee.
March 22, 1973 Nixon/Mitchell meeting where Nixon announces determination to require all staff to appear before grand jury without claim of executive privilege (“Stonewall” quote). Dean sent to Camp David to prepare report for President on cover-up, as bass for call for new grand jury. (Second Dean Report).
March 23, 1973 Dean sent to Camp David to prepare report for President on cover-up. (Second Dean Report). Sentencing hearing by Judge Sirica. McCord letter released to public. Other defendants provisionally sentenced to maximum prison terms (up to 40 years), with possible reduction upon cooperation with prosecutors and Ervin Committee. McCord and counsel meet with Dash to discuss Ervin Committee appearance within an hour of sentencing hearing
March 27, 1973 Hunt testifies before grand jury, under grant of immunity from further prosecution. Magruder informs Dean of his decision to retain criminal defense counsel
March 28, 1973 Dean recalled from Camp David when unable to produce promised report, retains Charles Shaffer as criminal defense counsel. Hunt continues to testify before grand jury
March 29, 1973 Hunt continues to testify before grand jury.
March 30, 1973 Ehrlichman replaces Dean as head of internal Watergate investigation.
The two months of April and May of 1973, the period between the collapse of Dean’s cover-up and beginning of the Watergate Special Prosecution Force, are key to understanding the the successful exploitation of the Watergate scandal. Events are presented in explicit detail.
1 Magruder flies to Bermuda to meet with and retain James Bierbower as criminal defense counsel who was recommended by Dean); informs Dean of his action.
1 Senator Lowell Weicker announces at press conference that CRP had paid someone to spy on nine Congressional offices in 1972.
2 Shaffer has first meeting in career prosecutor’s office with Seymour Glanzer; perhaps triggered by Magruder confiding in Dean that he has retained counsel. Discussions center on Dean’s interest in obtaining immunity in exchange for his testimony.
3 Senator Sam Ervin announces end to any further closed sessions of his Committee (due to leaks from McCord session on March 28th).
3 Magruder meets again with Mitchell and LaRue. Afterwards, he and LaRue agree there is no sense in trying to protect Mitchell anymore and that both should approach career prosecutors to seek deals.
3 Weicker publicly calls for Haldeman’s resignation due to broad range of campaign abuses.
5 Shaffer meets with Glanzer at his home late at night “on
emergency basis”. Immunity discussions continue.
5 Hunt continues to testify before grand jury.
5 Pat Gray’s nomination as FBI Director is withdrawn.
5 Sirica grants McCord immunity from further prosecution and McCord begins testimony before grand jury.
6 Shaffer meets with Silbert and Glanzer at their offices; again
discussion centers on Dean’s interest in immunity in exchange for
7 Magruder meets again with Bierbower, but still resists telling
8 Silbert, Glanzer and Campbell have first face-to-face meeting
with Dean at Shaffer’s offices in Rockville, Maryland. This is an
off-the-record meeting to demonstrate Dean’s potential value as a
witness-to whet their interest in granting him immunity.
9 Hunt continues to testify before grand jury.
9 The New York Times quotes sources as saying McCord has told grand jury that Ken Parkinson, CRP’s attorney, had channeled money to defendants after break-in.
9 Mollenhoff meets with Magruder and suggests he cannot avoid being indicted. Later claims this meeting led Magruder to confess all to his newly retained counsel.
9 (evening) Silbert, Glanzer and Campbell again meet with Dean and Shaffer at Shaffer’s offices.
10 Washington Post reports McCord and Cubans had received monthly payments in exchange for silence.
10 Magruder meets with Bierbower and his associate, Jim Sharp, fully disclosing his full involvement with the Liddy campaign intelligence plan and subsequent cover-up.
10 Shaffer telephones Silbert to say Dean is thinking of approaching Attorney General Richard Kleindienst directly to discuss immunity.
11 Dwight Chapin and Gordon Strachan testify before grand jury.
11 (evening) Sharp calls Silbert to discuss immunity for
12 Washington Post reports McCord has testified that Liddy told him that wiretap transcripts had been provided to Mitchell.
12 Bierbower and Sharp meet with Silbert, Glanzer and Campbell to discuss immunity for Magruder in exchange for his testimony.
12 Shaffer meets with Glanzer and Silbert, confides Dean’s embezzlement of CRP funds, saying he wants them to hear it from them before they learn it from Strachan.
13 Silbert, Glanzer and Campbell meet at Bierbower’s offices. Meeting includes an overview presented by Magruder on an off-the-record basis as an indication of his value as a witness. Silbert calls Sharp that evening to offer a plea to a single felony count, which is accepted by Magruder later that night
14 (Saturday) Silbert, Glanzer and Campbell spend five hours at Bierbower’s offices debriefing Magruder, who then goes to WH to meet with John Ehrlichman and volunteers details of his cooperation with prosecutors.
14 (evening) Henry Petersen, head of the Criminal Division, confers with US Attorney Harold Titus, Silbert, Glanzer and Campbell; learns of Dean and Magruder allegations concerning Mitchell, Haldeman and Ehrlichman. Petersen drafts ‘brief statement’ for RN which he then discusses with Kleindienst.
14 Shaffer later meets with Glanzer at his home to discuss various developments in Watergate case.
15 (Sunday) Petersen and Kleindienst demand face-to-face meeting with Nixon, where they present their ‘brief statement’ describing Magruder and Dean allegations and urge immediate discharge of Haldeman and Ehrlichman. Kleindienst recuses himself from further involvement due to his closeness with Mitchell.
15 Dean and Shaffer meet with Silbert and Glanzer at Shaffer’s office, Silbert announces he has informed Petersen of Dean’s allegations. Dean discloses confidential information regarding Plumbers break-ink, as well as other “White House Horrors” obtained in his role as counsel to the President in the effort to obtain immunity.
15 Magruder meets with O’Brien, another CRP lawyer, and volunteers details of his cooperation with career prosecutors; O’Brien gets him to “X” statement clearing O’Brien. O’Brien telephones Silbert, Silbert telephones Sharp to get him to shut Magruder up. Silbert states they want Magruder to enter plea the following Tuesday (April 17th). Concern is that Sirica may incarcerate Magruder immediately, so they agree to discuss again the next day. [Magruder does not actually enter plea until August 16th].
16 David Young, co-head of Plumber Unit testifies before grand
jury (on Plumbers break-in).
16 LaRue meets with Silbert and confesses role in cover-up.
16 Silbert informs Peterson of Fielding break-in.
16 (morning) Dean meets with Nixon, discusses case
developments and form of his letter of resignation.
16 Petersen meets with Nixon. Discusses possible immunity for Dean, which Nixon rejects as improper for any senior staff member. Petersen urges Nixon to meet with Dean.
16 (afternoon) Dean meets with Nixon for last time. Nixon later claims to Petersen that Dean says he already has been promised immunity (which Petersen denies).
17 At news conference, Nixon announces “major new developments” in Watergate case and states that WH staff will appear voluntarily before Ervin Committee, under oath and without claim of executive privilege. He also discloses his meetings with Petersen, states new developments with real progress are being made in the investigation and implies that indictments are imminent. He adds that he has expressed the view that immunity should not be given to current or past members of his administration.
18 Nixon telephones Petersen, who discloses knowledge of Plumbers break-in and urges Nixon to disclose details to Judge Byrne, then trying Ellsberg case in California. (RN rejects idea at this time).
18 LaRue testifies before grand jury.
19: Nixon meets with Petersen for an hour, who again urges disclosure to Judge Byrne, who is trying Ellsberg case.. Kleindienst calls to concur and Nixon concedes.
19 Hunt continues to testify before grand jury.
19 Kleindienst recusal announced.
19 Dean issues statement that he ‘will not be a scapegoat’ in Watergate scandal.
19 Glanzer telephones Shaffer to confirm no immunity deal has been reached for Dean (as requested by Petersen following his Nixon meeting). Silbert writes memo to Petersen confirming that no deal on immunity has been reached with Dean.
20 Mitchell and Kalmbach testify before grand jury.
20 Nixon twice talks with Petersen by phone.
20 Shaffer telephones Silbert to say that Dash has called and wants to meet with Dean on an informal basis.
20 Washington Post and The New York Times run separate stories reporting payments were made to Watergate defendants.
20 Ehrlichman and Haldeman retain John Wilson as counsel.
20 George Frampton inventory indicates a memo memorializing an approach by Ehrlichman and counsel to the US Attorney’s office to discuss a possible plea bargain.
22 (Sunday) Dean vacates his WH office over the weekend, boxing up many counsel files for later negotiation with career prosecutors in attempt to bargain for personal immunity. Van driven by Roy Sheppard is used to remove these files. Later, some of these files are given to Sirica, who orders copies distributed to prosecutors and to Ervin Committee.
23 Nixon speaks three times with Petersen by phone.
23 Under District Court order, Finance Committee to Re-Elect the President turns over lists of pre-April 7, 1972 campaign contributions in a civil suit.
23 All 15 District Court Judges meeting in executive session to discuss series of leaks of grand jury testimony, following which they order US Attorney Titus to investigate.
23 (evening) Shaffer meets with Silbert and Glanzer, “By this time, discussions had turned into a political game. Dean was bargaining with Senate for immunity and the prosecutor’s attempts at agreeing on a plea were in vain.” [Denny/Rient memo]
24 Nixon talks with Petersen by phone.
25 Nixon talks with Petersen by phone.
26 Nixon twice talks with Petersen by phone.
26 Magruder resigns from Department of Commerce.
26 Press stories appear claiming Pat Gray had destroyed documents given to him by the WH.
27 Nixon twice talks with Petersen by phone.
27 Pat Gray resigns as acting director of FBI; White House announces Bill Ruckelshaus nomination as replacement.
27 Judge Byrne reveals Silbert memo saying Hunt and Liddy had burglarized Ellsberg’s doctor’s office.
27 Ehrlichman interviewed by FBI about Fielding break-in, results of which are later released to Judge Byrne.
27 The Government Accounting Office (GAO) report urges the Department of Justice to investigate CRP’s filings of false financial statements.
27 Len Garment and Dick Moore, WH lawyers, are announced as assuming additional Watergate counsel responsibilities.
28 Nixon twice speaks with Petersen by phone.
29 Shaffer calls Glanzer at home to discuss status of Watergate case.
30 Nixon announces resignations of Haldeman, Ehrlichman, and Kleindienst, as well as Dean’s termination.
30 Krogh takes leave of absence as Deputy Secretary of Transportation, Young resigns from NSC; Strachan resigns as general counsel of USIA.
30 Titus forwards Silbert’s memo to Richardson saying Watergate case is being vigorously pursued and recommending career prosecutors be allowed to remain in charge.
30 (evening) RN makes 24 minute address to nation, saying is nominating Elliott Richardson, then Secretary of Defense, as Attorney General and has given him permission to appoint a special supervising prosecutor.
1 FBI agents positioned outside West Wing offices of Haldeman and Ehrlichman to safeguard files.
1 Summary of 4/27 FBI interview of Ehrlichman given to Ellsberg counsel by Judge Byrne, who then make it public.
1 Dash cheers up Ervin staff, who believe announced resignations have co-opted Ervin hearings, pointing out there have been no indictments and any trials are a long way off.
2 The New York Times reports Haldeman, Ehrlichman, Mitchell, Dean, Magruder and LaRue had coordinated the cover-up and all were expected to be indicted in the near future.
2 Hunt continues to testify before grand jury.
2 Magruder testifies before grand jury.
2 Department of Justice files criminal charges against the Finance Committee to Re-Elect the President, based on GAO report.
2 Members of Senate Judiciary Committee publicly call on
Richardson to appoint a special prosecutor (as offered by Nixon in
April 30th speech).
2 Ervin Committee votes to request Richardson make raw FBI files available to all Committee members. (Weicker had been precluded under Kleindienst’s prior decision).
2 Judge Byrne acknowledges having had second meeting with Ehrlichman, confirms discussion centered on his possible appointment as FBI Director.
2 Ehrlichman has second FBI interview concerning Fielding break-in.
2 (evening) Silbert, Glanzer and Campbell meet with Dean and Shaffer at Shaffer’s Rockville office from 9:30pm to 2am.
3 Ehrlichman and Haldeman testify before grand jury.
3 Silbert, Glanzer and Campbell again meet with Dean at Shaffer’s Rockville office. Shaffer says Dean has highly classified documents that were in his possession when he was terminated.
3 (evening) Weicker meets with Dean and Shaffer at Shaffer’s Rockville office. Dash says Shaffer later admitted purpose of meeting was to feel Weicker out about immunity for Dean.
4 Weiker approaches Dash and Ervin with startling revelations from Dean about the two meetings in Mitchell’s office concerning Liddy’s intelligence plan.
4 Frampton inventory notes McCord gave statement on ‘pressure’ to plead guilty to Sirica.
4 Dean files document with Sirica containing keys to safe deposit box he says contains Watergate-related documents (but are really Counsel files he purloined from White House).
4 Ervin Committee staff interviews Ehrlichman in executive session, prepares 33 page summary (leaked on July 11).
4 Ervin Committee staff interviews Haldeman in executive session, (summary leaked on July 13).
4 (evening) Shaffer calls Glanzer at home to inform him that Dean will not testify before grand jury the following day, as had been agreed, and that he will testify instead before Ervin Committee under grant of partial immunity.
5 Al Haig, then vice Army chief of staff, becomes “temporary” White House Chief of Staff.
7 Ervin writes Richardson asking him to allow any Committee member or their staff to have access to summary FBI reports on Watergate investigations.
7 Newsweek carries story that Dean will testify he now believes Nixon knew of cover-up.
7 Richardson announces decision to appoint special prosecutor, offering Senate Judiciary Committee the opportunity to evaluate and informally confirm his choice.
8 Ervin Committee holds tentative vote to grant Dean immunity, Weicker supplies critical Republican vote necessary to achieve required two-thirds majority
8 Ervin Committee announces public hearings will begin May 17 and that it will compel testimony from Dean under grant of immunity.
8 Colson interviewed by FBI about Plumbers break-in.
8 Columbia University awards Pulitzer Prize to Washington Post
for 1972 Watergate coverage
9 In testimony before Senate Judiciary Committee on his confirmation, Richardson insists on retaining ultimate responsibility for overseeing work of special prosecutor.
9 Ehrlichman again testifies before grand jury.
9 Krogh officially resigns as Undersecretary of Department of
Transportation (following revelations about Plumbers break-in).
9 Washington Post reports Garment has begun legal effort to
retrieve sensitive White House files taken by Dean.
9 Ervin Committee releases tentative list of witnesses (in expected
order) including Rob Odle, McCord, Hunt, Liddy, Magruder,
Colson, Dean ,Herb Kalmbach, Maurice Stans, Mitchell, Gray,
Ehrlichman and Haldeman.
9 (evening) RN makes speech to ‘New Majority’ fundraising dinner in DC, text released to public.
9 (evening) Dash meets Dean and Shaffer in Shaffer’s Rockville office. Meeting lasts until 2am. . Both later claim this is their first meeting, which is problematic since Silbert’s memo places Ervin Committee competition over Dean as emerging on or about April 20th. Discussion said to center on importance of Dean having immunity, which also is troubling since Ervin Committee held informal vote granting such immunity the day prior. Perhaps effort is to avoid admitting Dean was bargaining with Committee for immunity while still employed as Counsel to the President.
10 Dean issues statement through counsel that he will testify truthfully, saying WH did have discussions about ending Watergate, but they always ended in the decision not to tell the truth. False impression is created that Dean was advocating full disclosure.
10 Senator Ervin characterizes public hearings (to begin on May 17th) as “the most important investigation ever entrusted to the Congress.”
10 Mitchell and Stans indicted by New York-based grand jury in the Robert Vesco case.
10 Fred Buzhardt, former general counsel of Department of Defense, named special counsel to the President to concentrate solely on Watergate matters.
10 Dash calls Silbert, who complains about leaks from Ervin Committee critical of Silbert’s investigation, as well as publication of Dash comments concerning their April 20th meeting that was to be off-the-record. Leaks are attributed to Terry Lenzner of Dean’s staff. Dash also tells Silbert the Committee will proceed with public hearings, but states this may be re-evaluated if indictments are forthcoming.
10 Summary of Colson’s May 8th FBI interview given to Ellsberg defense counsel by Judge Byrne , who then make it public.
10 (evening) Dash again meets with Dean and Shaffer in Shaffer’s Rockville office, meeting again lasts until 2am.
11 Judge Byrne dismisses all charges against Ellsberg due to ‘government misconduct’.
13 Jack Caulfield takes leave of absence from Treasury, where he
had been Assistant Director of ATF).
13 Dash again meets with Dean and Shaffer in Shaffer’s Rockville
14 Newsweek prints interview with Dean in which he denies ever rendering any Dean Report to Nixon (as had been announced by the President on August 29, 1972).
14 Sirica takes possession of offered portion of Dean’s WH Counsel papers, orders copies given to prosecutors and to Ervin Committee, guaranteeing they will become public.
14: Richardson informs Senate Judiciary of four names under consideration (Harold Tyler, David Peck, both then Federal Judges in New York; William Erickson of Colorado Supreme Court, and Warren Christopher, former Deputy Attorney General in Johnson Administration).
14 Ehrlichman and Haldeman again testify before grand jury.
15: Richardson informs Senate Judiciary that Judge Tyler has turned down the special prosecutor position.
15 Ervin Committee formally votes to ask Sirica to grant Dean partial immunity to testify before that committee.
15 Dash meets with Dean and Shaffer in Dean’s home in Old Town Alexandria.
16 Richardson informs Senate Judiciary that Christopher has turned down the special prosecutor position due to lack of total independence. Judiciary committee members are quoted in the press as saying his nomination is in trouble and he cannot be confirmed without agreeing to total independence for special prosecutor.
16 Dash writes Silbert requesting all materials developed in their investigation into thirty named individuals be provided to Ervin Committee staff.
16 Buzhardt meets at Department of Justice with Petersen, Silbert, Glanzer and Campbell to discuss prosecutor’s demands for White House documents and any recorded phone conversations.
16 Sirica grants Liddy limited immunity from further prosecution as requested by Ervin Committee.
16 Dash again meets with Dean and Shaffer in Dean’s home in Old Town Alexandria.
16 Young testifies before grand jury.
17 First day of public hearings by Ervin Committee; Odle and Kehrli testify as to CRP and WH organization.
17 Richardson offers special prosecutor position to Archibald Cox, who is reported by Boston Globe to have been Kennedy’s choice all along.
18 McCord testifies before Ervin Committee.
18: Cox informs Richardson he will accept the position; Richardson announces proposed appointment to Senate Judiciary Committee.
18 Petersen circulates memo to all Criminal Division section chiefs requesting identification of matters that could fall within Special Prosecutor’s jurisdiction.
19 Richardson submits agreed-upon Guidelines to Senate Judiciary Committee, promising special prosecutor will have ‘full, unreviewed independence’.
19 GAO reports that Kalmbach raised at least $210,000 for Watergate defendants, plus transfer of $350,000 from the WH.
20 Ervin on ABC’s Issues and Answers criticizes Department of Justice for waiting until after election to bring the break-in defendants to trial.
21 Senator Symington releases Vernon Walter’s CIA memo describing the June 21, 1972 meeting at the WH, wherein the CIA was asked to request the FBI to postpone interviews of Ken Dahlberg and David Ogarrio.
21 Richardson and Cox appear jointly before Senate Judiciary Committee to review and discuss special prosecutor position, as well as proposed Guidelines for Special Prosecutor.
21 Peterson sends Silbert the Office of Legal Counsel’s analysis of resolution of any disputes between Legislative and Executive Branches regarding grants of immunity.
22 Third day of Ervin Committee hearings, continuation of McCord, plus Caulfield.
22 Nixon issues 4,000 word statement admitting a cover-up occurred, but denying any personal complicity.
22 Silbert replies to Dash that Department of Justice has policy of not turning grand jury information over to Congress without court approval, but says ultimate decision will be made by Cox after assuming office.
22 Titus letter to Dean saying he is target of grand jury investigation and there will be no grant of immunity by the Department of Justice. Offers deal on single felony count, which Dean rejects
22 The New York Times reports that Silbert, Glanzer and Campbell are posed to resign over appointment of Special Prosecutor, but have postponed action pending meeting with Cox, scheduled for following day.
22-23 Ehrlichman gives 187 page deposition in DNC v McCord civil suit (later made public on June 5).
23 Fourth day of Ervin Committee hearings (Caulfield, Tony Ulasewicz, Gerald Alch).
23 Senate Judiciary Committee votes to recommend Richardson’s confirmation as attorney general.
23 Cox meets with Titus, Silbert, et al, telling them they need to stay until he is up to speed.
24 Fifth day of Ervin Committee hearings (Alch, Bernard Barker, Alfred Baldwin).
24 Petersen forwards his section chief reports identifying possible pending cases of interest to special prosecutor to Cox.
24 Titus issues press release announcing the career prosecutors had met with Cox and been urged to stay on the Watergate case-adding that a comprehensive indictment could be expected within 60-90 days.
24 Department of Justice later releases Cox letter to Titus saying ‘as soon as I have taken office in the Department, I would of course expect to be consulted before any decisions are made’.
25 Richardson sworn in as attorney general at White House ceremony; immediately appoints Cox as special prosecutor in subsequent ceremony at the Department of Justice which is attended by Ethel Kennedy, Ted Kennedy and Jim Flug.
25 Cox memo to Petersen requesting copies of records of any instructions, oral or written, to Titus concerning Watergate investigation.
25 Senator Herbert Tallmadge (Ervin Committee member) tells reporters the Committee should focus on question of Nixon’s involvement and remove the cloud of uncertainty-in contrast with Ervin, who was reported to favor a more gradual, circumspect development of the evidence.
26-27 Cox meets with Harvard Law professors James Vorenberg and Philip Heymann, who become his top lieutenants.
28 (Memorial Day Monday) Cox first meeting with press (Neiman Fellows reunion at Harvard, with both Anthony Lewis and James Doyle attending). Later, spends the afternoon in review session with Vorenberg and Heymann and Jim Flug, who advocates a wide scope for WSPF investigations.
28 Release of Newsweek magazine (cover dated June 4), which reports grand jury has agreed to indict Haldeman, Ehrlichman, Mitchell and Magruder.
29: Cox, Flug, Vorenberg and Heymann return to Washington, DC
29 (circa) Cox letter to Titus, et al concerning reporting relationships. Earlier draft shows Cox had ‘explicitly disapproved’ Titus issuing any statement.
31: Memorandum to Cox from John Hart Ely, another HLS colleague, discussing whether a sitting president can be indicted.
6: Hunt continues to testify before grand jury. Cox files objections to the Ervin Committee’s application to Judge Sirica for a grant of limited immunity, urging Sirica to condition the grant on the Committee ending its public hearings, but the idea is rejected by Sirica.
8: Colson and Ehrlichman continue to testify before grand jury
12: Sirica formally orders use immunity for Dean and Magruder, as voted by Ervin Committee.
14: Magruder testifies before Ervin Committee under grant of immunity.
17: All the President’s Men, by Woodward and Bernstein is released; excerpts appeared in May issue of Playboy.
18: LaRue testifies before grand jury under informal grant of immunity.
22: Mark Felt retires after 31 years with the FBI. Woodward’s dramatic scopes cease accordingly.
25: Dean begins testimony before Ervin Committee, saying Nixon knew as early as September 15, 1972 of Cover-up. Essentially, accuses Nixon, Haldeman, and Ehrlichman of knowing participation in CRP Cover-up.
27: Buzhardt memo to Ervin Committee detailing Dean’s cover-up involvement.
27: LaRue pleads guilty to single count of obstruction of justice, WSPF releases letter assuring his lawyer of no further charges and urging judge to allow on bail until after testimony
30: Silbert, Glanzer and Campbell formally withdraw from Watergate investigation
30: US Troop strength in Vietnam falls below 200 and remains so
for remainder of the Nixon Presidency
Chronology now reverts to less specifically detailed format
July 1, 1973 Fred LaRue testifies before Ervin Committee.
July 13, 1973 Butterfield tells Ervin Committee staff about the WH taping system. He was then subpoenaed to testify before the full Committee on Monday morning.
July 14, 1973 Silent Coup asserts that Haig learned of Butterfield’s revelation on Saturday night, but did not inform Nixon until Monday morning, when it was too late to quash his subpoena.
July 16, 1973 Alex Butterfield testifies before Ervin Committee, publicly disclosing existence of White House Taping System.
July 17, 1973 Hunt continues to testify before grand jury.
July 18, 1973 General Bennett put in charge of WH tapes.
July 19, 1973 Gray testifies before grand jury.
July 20, 1973 Gray continues to testify before grand jury. Liddy refuses to take oath as witness before House Armed Services Committee investigative hearing.
July 23, 1973 Cox has grand jury subpoena tapes of eight specific presidential conversations (later clarified to include a ninth); Ervin Committee authorizes subpoenas of all materials relating to criminal acts in connection with the 1972 presidential election. Sirica demands grand jurors appear in his court to officialize their subpoena.
July 24, 1973 Ehrlichman testifies before Ervin Committee that Fielding break–in was legal and undertaken for national security purposes
July 25, 1973 Buzhardt informs Sirica that Nixon will not comply with WSPF tape subpoena
July 31, 1973 Washington Post reports back-dating of Nixon deed to National Archives by White House attorney, Ed Morgan
August 3, 1973 Bittman testifies before grand jury.
August 7, 1973 Hunt continues to testify before grand jury.
August 8, 1973 Hunt continues to testify before grand jury.
August 13, 1973 Grand Jury II empanelled to investigate campaign contributions, political espionage, plumbers and ITT.
August 14, 1973 Hunt continues to testify before grand jury.
August 16, 1973 Magruder pleads to single felony count.
August 22, 1973 Young continues to testify before grand jury.
August 23, 1973 Henry Petersen testifies before grand jury
August 29, 1973 Sirica orders WH compliance with grand jury subpoena for nine tapes.
September 10, 1973 Ehrlichman testifies before grand jury, this time before WSPF attorneys. Appearance expected to last two or three days.
September 11, 1973 Oral arguments before Circuit Court on tape subpoena. Shortly thereafter, court requests parties seek compromise on tape subpoena. Cox submits six-page proposal for tape summaries with third-party authentication, but no agreement is reached. Court then told compromise is not achievable. Ehrlichman continues to testify before grand jury.
September 13, 1973 Ehrlichman continues to testify before grand jury.
September 20, 1973 Both parties inform DC Circuit that they cannot reach a compromise on the grand jury subpoena for the nine White House tapes.
October 1, 1973 Segretti pleads guilty to three felony counts of distributing illegal campaign literature before Judge Gesell. Rose Woods informs Nixon that she has inadvertently caused a 5 minute erasure in one of the tapes.
October 11, 1973 Krogh indicted on two counts of false testimony before grand jury. Case assigned to Judge Gesell.
October 12, 1973 Circuit Court confirms Judge Sirica’s order to turn over subpoenaed tapes for review, directing Sirica to listen to nine tapes to decide if they are relevant to the special prosecutor’s inquiry.Nixon v Sirica, 487 F. 2nd 700 (1973).
October 19, 1973 Announcement of Dean’s guilty plea to single felony count, along with agreement to work with special prosecutor. Dean’s sentencing postponed indefinitely. White House, joined by Senators Ervin and Baker, announces Stennis Compromise, wherein Senator John Stennis will “certify” accuracy of tape transcripts in lieu of tapes themselves, to be turned over to Judge Sirica in the afternoon. Richardson informs WH that Cox has unexpectedly rejected Stennis Compromise.
October 20, 1973 Cox questions ‘rule of law’ in hastily arranged press conference at National Press Club. Saturday Night Massacre: President orders Richardson to fire Cox; Richardsonresigns instead. Ruckelshaus also refuses, and is terminated. In late afternoon, Robert Bork, then solicitor general, agrees to fire Cox. ‘Firestorm of protest’ follows.
October 23, 1973 Charles Allen Wright delivers Nixon letter to Sirica agreeing to turn over the nine subpoenaed tapes.
October 23, 1973 HJC announces beginning of Impeachment Inquiry.
October 31, 1973 Buzhardt informs Sirica that two of the nine subpoenaed conversations were never actually recorded and do not exist. Sirica begins Evidentiary Hearing regarding WH compliance with tapes subpoena.
First Week of November Woodward claims that Deep Throat informs him of “deliberate erasures” on one or more of the tapes.
November 1, 1973 Acting AG Bork announces Leon Jaworski as new special prosecutor.
November 2, 1973 WSPF re-established by Bork’s order. Frampton learns from Dean that he has withheld and then destroyed materials from Hunt’s safe, including the Hermes notebooks.
November 5, 1973 Jaworski sworn in as special prosecutor, along with revised Guidelines requiring six affirmative votes from congressional committee of eight for removal from office. Ben-Veniste reveals in court that Dean destroyed some of the contents of Hunt’s safe (after hiding those materials from prosecutors). Sam Powers retained to represent WH in Evidentiary Hearing, after interview by Buzhardt and Garment in Miami.
November 6, 1973 Powers arrives at the WH and makes first appearance before Sirica.
November 7, 1973 Full Senate authorizes Ervin Committee to subpoena and sue Nixon.
November 8, 1973 Woodward writes story in Washington Post claiming WH official says there are suspicious problems with the tapes, but does not claim there to have been deliberate erasures.
November 9, 1973 Sirica hands down final Watergate sentences
November 13-14, 1973 WH and WSPF attorneys go to NSA to make two copies of each of the subpoenaed tapes. (Sam Powers interview). Buzhardt told me on November 13th that he had discovered the 18½ minute gap while he was making copy with NSA expert the night before. Powers remembers that Buzhardt played the tape with him on the 14th and that was when Buzhardt discovered the gap was longer than the 5 minutes claimed by Rose Woods.
November 13, 1973 Buzhardt discovers 18Â½ minute gap while making copies of the seven existing subpoenaed tapes in preparation to turning them over to Judge Sirica.
November 19, 1973 Dean testifies before grand jury.
November 20, 1973 Dean continues to testify before grand jury.
November 21, 1973 Buzhardt discloses existence of 18Â½ minute gap in private meetings with Jaworski and then Sirica, who insists on immediate disclosure in Evidentiary Hearing that afternoon.
November, 1973 FBI questions WH legal secretaries at their homes to determine if Nixon defense team is deliberately altering tapes.
November 26, 1973 Nixon personal secretary, Rose Mary Woods, begins testimony on 18Â½ minute gap. White House turns over seven existing tapes to Sirica.
November 29, 1973 Dwight Chapin indicted for perjury. Case assigned to Judge Gesell.
November 30, 1973 Krogh pleads guilty before Judge Gesell to conspiracy to violate Fielding’s civil rights.
December 6, 1973 WSPF files brief on Liddyâ€™s appeal of his conviction in the break–in trial.
December 14, 1973 Jaworski, Ruth, Lacovara and Ben-Veniste meet privately with Judges Sirica and Gesell.
December 23, 1973 John Doar hired as chief counsel for HJCâ€™s Impeachment Inquiry.
December 27, 1973 Jaworski sends letter to Sirica itemizing anticipated indictments.
January 4, 1974 James St. Clair joins WH counsel’s office to assume lead role in public defense of Nixon.
January 7, 1974 Grand Jury III empanelled to investigate matters similar to those of Grand Jury II (campaign contributions, political espionage, plumbers and ITT).
January 18, 1974 Sirica suspends Evidentiary Hearing and refers issue of 18Â½ minute gap to the grand jury.
January 21, 1974 Herbert Porter indicted for one count of lying to FBI, pleads guilty on January 28th.
January 24, 1974 Krogh sentenced to 2-6 years by Gesell, all but six months suspended.
January 29, 1974 Hunt and Krogh continue to testify before grand jury.
January 30, 1974 Haldeman testifies before two Watergate grand juries, without taking the Fifth Amendment, even though he has been informed that he is a target.
February 4, 1974 Petersen continues to testify before grand jury.
February 6, 1974 Full House votes to authorizes HJC to investigate grounds for impeachment. Young continues to testify before grand jury.
February 11, 1974 Jaworski meets privately with Judge Sirica, who importunes him to hurry the cover-up indictment, since he wants to appoint himself as presiding judge. Jaworski memoralizes their discussion in a confidential memo the following day.
February 14, 1974 Dean again testifies before grand jury.
February 19, 1974 Hunt and Bittman continue to testify before grand jury.
February 20, 1974 Colson continues to testify before grand jury.
February 24, 1974 Watergate Grand Jury I votes 19-0 to name Nixon as an unindicted co-conspirator, but this action is kept sealed.
February 25, 1974 Herb Kalmbach pleads guilty to violation of Federal Corrupt Practices Act (sale of ambassadorship to Fife Symington in 1970), sentenced 6-18 months, fined $10,000. Haig testifies before grand jury.
March 1, 1974 grand jury indicts Mitchell, Haldeman, Ehrlichman, Colson, Robert Mardian, Strachan, and Ken Parkinson for Cover-up. Nixon named unindicted co-conspirator, but action is sealed and remains undisclosed until it leaks on June 6th. (Report and Recommendation to the House of Representative, the “Roadmap“).
March 4, 1973 WSPF files brief on McCord and Hunt appeals of their convictions in the break–in trial.
March 6, 1974 Sirica holds hearing on sending Roadmap to House of Representatives; appeal heard and denied.
March 7, 1974 Grand jury indicts Colson, Ehrlichman, Liddy and Cubans for Plumber break-in of Fielding’s office. At behest of Special Prosecutor, Sirica assigns case to Judge Gesell,
March 11, 1974 Time Magazine prints names and employment information of all twenty-three members of Watergate Grand Jury I.
March 15, 1974 Jaworski has grand jury issue subpoena for more WH documents. Silbert submits memo to Senate Judiciary Committee defending his handling of the Watergate break-in prosecution, saying he never could figure out the motive for the Watergate burglary.
March 18, 1974 Sirica orders Roadmap sent to House of Representatives (In Re Report, 370 F. Supp. 1219 (DDC 1974).
March 19, 1974 Judge Sirica turns seventy and is require to step down as Chief Judge, thereby losing the ability to assign cases to specific judges.
March 20, 1974 Haldeman and Strachan appeal Sirica order on Roadmap.
March 21, 1974 Hearing on Haldeman/Strachan appeal, denied that same day, Haldeman v Sirica, 501 F2d 714 (DC Cir 1974).
March 26, 1974 Roadmap transferred to House of Representatives.
March 29, 1974 WH complies with March 15 subpoena.
April 1, 1974 WSPF files brief on appeal of Cubans’ conviction in the break–in trial.
April 5, 1974 Chapin found guilty on two of three counts of perjury.
April 16, 1974 Jaworski subpoena for 64 presidential tapes.
April 28, 1974 Mitchell and Stans acquitted on all charges in Vesco trial in NY.
April 30, 1974 WH publication of edited transcripts of 43 conversations, including portions of 20 conversations covered by Jaworski subpoena. Transcripts concurrently transmitted to House Judiciary, with offer to come listen to verify.
May 3, 1974 Sirica appoints panel of six on WH tapes.
May 5, 1974 Jaworski informs Haig and St. Claire of Nixon’s being named as an unindicted co-conspirator in the cover-up indictment.
May 6, 1974 Buzhardt testifies before grand jury.
May 9, 1974 Opening of HJC impeachment hearings.
May 10, 1974 Magruder sentenced by Judge Sirica to term of ten months to four years for cover-up role. Sentence to begin June 4th.
May 15, 1974 Chapin sentenced by Judge Gesell to 10-30 months in prison
May 16, 1974 Kleindienst pleads guilty to refusal to answer pertinent questions before a Senate Committee. Sentenced to 30 days, fined $100, sentence is suspended
May 20, 1974 Following in camera hearings, Sirica denies motion to quash and orders enforcement of Jaworski subpoena for 64 tapes. WSPF files brief in DC Circuit defending Sirica’s naming himself to preside over cover-up trial.
May 21, 1974 Magruder sentenced to prison term of 10 months to four years.
May 24, 1974 WH appeals Sirica’s order to DC Circuit. Jaworski petitions Supreme Court to hear case directly.
May 31, 1974 Supreme Court grants Jaworski’s petition for certiorari on 64 tape subpoena. Chief Judge George Hart grants extension to Grand Jury I, now to expire on December 4, 1974.
June 3, 1974 Colson pleads guilty to single count in Plumbers case, other indictments dismissed.
June 4, 1974 Magruder surrenders to begin his prison term.
June 5, 1974 Judge Sirica gives cover-up defendants a list of the seventeen persons named as unindicted co-conspirators in the March 1st grand jury indictment.
June 6, 1974 The grand jury’s naming of Nixon as co-conspirator becomes public through an article in LA Times. WH files writ of certiorari asking Supreme Court to decide whether grand jury has authority to indict the President.
June 7, 1974 Appellate Court denies writ of mandamus to remove Sirica as judge in cover–up trial, without hearing in unsigned opinion.
June 9, 1974 Sirica rules against defense motion to move cover-up trial to outside of DC.
June 13, 1974 Buzhardt suffers heart attack and is hospitalized for a week.
June 14, 1974 DC Circuit court hears appeals from all convictions in break–in trial. WH also files cross-petition for certiorari before Supreme Court, under seal.
June 15, 1974 Supreme Court agrees to hear expedited appeal of Sirica’s order to produce 64 tapes, skipping DC Circuit Court review, along with St. Clair petition challenging grand jury’s authority to name Nixon as unindicted co-conspirator. Supreme Court grants cert on WH cross-petition.
June 20, 1974 Jaworski files brief in Supreme Court in US v Nixon
June 21, 1974 Colson sentenced 1-3 years in prison, fined $5,000, by Judge Gesell. St. Clair files reply brief in US v Nixon
June 25, 1974 HJC publishes transcripts of eight Nixon/Dean conversations, including “Stonewall” quote.
June 26, 1974 Plumbers break-in trial begins before Judge Gesell. St Clair appears for two days of hearings before House Judiciary to defend the President
July 8, 1974 Supreme Court hears oral argument regarding subpoena for 64 tapes.
July 9, 1974 Judge Gesell orders Henry Petersen grand jury testimony released to HJC Impeachment Inquiry
July 12, 1974 Ehrlichman, Liddy and two Cubans found guilty in Plumber Break-in trial. The Ervin Committee issues its final report. Dwayne Andreas, CEO of ADM, acquitted in corporate contributions case in MN
July 23, 1974 Wallace responds to RN question that he no longer supports the President. Southern Democrat support on HJC vanishes.
July 24, 1974 Supreme Court rules (8-0) that 64 tapes must be turned over; eight hours later, WH announces intent to comply.
July 25, 1973 Supreme Court denies cert writ of certiorari removing Sirica from presiding over cover–up trial.
July 27, 1974 Dean financial letter for Pre-Sentence Report delivered to probation officer (forwarded to Sirica on 7/29). HJC adopts Article I of impeachment resolution, obstruction of justice.
July 29, 1974 John Connally indicted in Milk Producers case. HJC adopts Article II of impeachment resolution, misuse of powers (violating oath of office).
July 30, 1974 HJC Committee adopts Article III of impeachment resolution, failure to comply with House subpoenas.
July 31, 1974 Gesell sentences convicted defendants in Fielding break–in case.
August 2, 1974 Dean sentenced by Sirica to term of one to four years for role in Cover-up. Sentence to begin September 3, the scheduled date for the first day of Cover-up trial
August 5, 1974 WH releases transcripts of remaining tapes, including three Nixon/Haldeman conversations of June 23, 1972 (“Smoking Gun”), along with presidential statement.
August 8, 1974 Nixon announces resignation in evening speech to the nation.
August 9, 1974 Nixon’s resignation becomes effective at noon; Vice President Gerald Ford sworn in as president.
August 14, 1974 DC Circuit Court denies Haldeman’s petition questioning validity of Grand Jury I.
August 20, 1974 House accepts HJC’s Judiciary Committee’s impeachment report by vote of 412 to 3.
August 22, 1974 DC Circuit Court suggests three to four week delay in beginning of cover-up trial, then scheduled to begin on September 3rd.
September 2, 1974 Supreme Court denies Ehrlichman’s application for stay in cover–up trial.
September 3, 1974 Dean begins confinement at Fort Holabird. Cover-up trial was scheduled to begin on same date, but postponed one month at suggestion of DC Circuit Court due to RN resignation.
September 8, 1974 Ford grants full, unconditional pardon to Richard Nixon.
September 9, 1974 WSPF brief filed in Chapin appeal.
September 20, 1974 DC Circuit Court denies Strachan’s petition for writ of mandamus. DC Circuit Court denies petitions by Mitchell and Haldeman for indefinite stay of cover–up trial.
September 28, 1974 Ervin Committee officially terminates its work and submits its final report.
September 30, 1974 Strachan case severed from cover-up trial at urging of DC Circuit Court on basis of good-faith agreement with career prosecutors..
October 1, 1974 Cover-up trial begins.
October 12, 1974 Jaworski announces resignation, effective October 25, following sequestration of Cover-up jury.
October 17, 1974 President Ford testifies under oath about Nixon pardon before House Judiciary subcommittee.
October 26, 1974 Henry Ruth becomes special prosecutor.
October 28, 1974 Magruder begins first of five days of testimony at cover-up trial, ending on November 4th.
November 8, 1974 Ed Morgan pleads guilty to back-dating Deed of Gift for Nixon’s papers, sentenced to two years, all but four months suspended
November 9, 1974 Agreement permitting WSPF access to Nixon papers and tapes.
November 11, 1974 Supreme Court denies Haldeman petition challenging validity of Grand Jury I.
December 4, 1974 Watergate Grand Jury I goes out of existence after thirty months. It was the longest that a federal grand jury had ever sat.
December 6, 1974 Liddy files petition for writ of certiorari in break-in conviction
December 9, 1974 President Ford signs the Presidential Recordings and Materials Act, seizing Nixon’s presidential papers. Litigation follows.
December 11, 1974 Harry Dent pleads guilty in connection with Townhouse Project, sentenced to one month unsupervised probation
December 12, 1974 Appellate Court affirms convictions of Liddy and McCord in break–in case.
December 19, 1974 President Ford signs Presidential Recordings and Materials Preservation Act.
December 29, 1974 Cover–up case goes to the jury.
January 1, 1975 Cover-up trial concludes with guilty verdicts for Mitchell, Haldeman, and Ehrlichman on all counts. Parkinson found not guilty. Mardian’s conviction later overturned on appeal.
January 8, 1975 Upon his own motion, Sirica reduces sentences of Dean, Magruder and Kalmbach to time served, releasing them from confinement
January,1975 WSPF Report notes they launched investigation of whether WH transcripts had been deliberately falsified-in essence, a criminal investigation of Nixon’s defense team.
January 13, 1975 WSPF files brief in opposition to Liddy’s petition for writ of certiorari
January 27, 1975 Liddy’s petition denied by Supreme Court.
February 7, 1975 DC Circuit Court hears Chapin’s appeal.
February 10, 1975 McCord files petition for writ of certiorari challenging his conviction in break-in case.
February 12, 1975 Watergate Grand Jury II expires after customary 18 month term.
February 21, 1975 Haldeman, Ehrlichman, and Mitchell sentenced to terms of 2 Â½ to 8 years.
March 10, 1975 Special Prosecutor drops charges against Strachan, as orally advised by Appellate Court.
March 12, 1975 Maurice Stans pleads guilty to three counts in violation of Federal Election Campaign Act.
March 14, 1975 LaRue sentenced to six months in prison.
April 2, 1975 Trial of John Connally begins in DC, he’s represented by Edward Bennett Williams, Lady Bird Johnson testifies as a character witness.
April 17, 1975 Connally acquitted on two courts in Milk Producers case.
April 18, WSPF asks Court to drop remaining three counts against Connally.
April 21, 1975 McCord petition for writ of certiorari denied.
April 23, 1975 Morgan released from prison.
May 2, 1975 WSPF files brief in the appeal of the convictions in the Plumbers case.
May 14, 1975 Stans fined $5,000 to two technical violations of campaign finance laws.
May 29, 1975 McCord released from prison.
June 1, 1975 Special Prosecutor subpoena’s Nixon to special grand jury in San Clemente.
June 18, 1975 DC Circuit Court hears Ehrlichman’s appeal in Plumbers case.
June 23, 1975 Nixon begins two days of testimony before two members of Grand Jury III in San Clemente. WSPF members present are 6/23: Henry Ruth, Thomas McBride, Richard Davis, Judith Denny, and Paul Michel; additional at 6/24: Jay Horowitz, Francis Martin, and Henry Hect. RN testimony unsealed by court order, released 11/10/11.
July 3, 1975 Grand Jury III expires.
October 16, 1975 WSPF Report released , Ruth resigns as Special Prosecutor (replaced by Charles Ruff).
March 12, 1975 WSPF indicts Claude Wild, Gulf Oil lobbyist, on campaign contributions (investigation later included Senator Bob Dole).
May 17, 1976 DC Circuit Court reverses convictions of Barker and Martinez in Plumbers case, upholds those of Ehrlichman and Liddy.
July 26, 1976 Two day trial of Claude Wild, resulting in acquittal. Only acquittal of DC trial.
October 12, 1976 DC Circuit Court upholds Cover-up convictions, except for Mardian’s, which is reversed and remanded.
October 28, 1976 Ehrlichman begins prison term.
November 1976 President Ford loses election to Jimmy Carter, former Governor of Georgia.
May 23, 1977 Supreme Court denies writ of certiorari in cover-up convictions. Four votes would have been necessary, but the vote was 5-3, with Rehnquist recusing himself. Nina Totenberg of NPR scooped court with article on their deliberations.
April 12, 1977 President Carter commutes sentence of Gordon Liddy to maximum of eight years confinement.
June, 1977 Final Report of WSPJ, which then disbands. Interesting exit interview given by Charles Ruff.
1978 Independent Counsel statute enacted, Ethics in Government Act of 1978, 28 U.S.C, Â§ 49, 591 et seq. (1982 ed., Supp. V).
May, 1980 Edward Kennedy makes run for Democratic Presidential Nomination, loses to Carter first ten state primaries.
December 9, 1982 Leon Jaworski dies at age 79.
April 23, 1985 Sam Ervin dies at age 89.
1987 Independent Counsel statute declared unconstitutional by DC Court of Appeals, Silberman wrote for 2-1 majority, with Ginsberg dissenting. In Re Sealed Case, 267 U. S. App.D.C. 178, 838 F.2d 476 (reversed).
June 29, 1988 Supreme Court reversed and upholds constitutionality of Independent Prosecutor stature Morrison v Olson, 478 U.S. 654 91988), Scalia dissenting.
November 9, 1988 John Mitchell dies at age 75.
July 19, 1990 Nixon Museum opens in Yorba Linda, CA
August 14, 1992 Judge John Sirica dies at age 88.
June 15, 1993 John Connally dies at age 76.
November 12, 1993 Bob Haldeman dies at age 67.
April 22, 1994 Richard M. Nixon dies at age 81and is buried at site of Presidential Library and Birthplace in Yorba Linda, California.
February 14, 1999 John Ehrlichman dies at age 74.
2000 Compromise reached on litigation over compensation for government seizure of Nixon presidential papers; settlement believed to be $18 million.
March 2, 2001 William O Bittman dies, opening 22 boxes of National Archive files for review
June 2, 2003 Burke Marshall dies at age 81
February 17, 2003 Presidential Tapes: Historical Record conference on presidential recordings held at Kennedy Library in Boston.
January, 2004 Act of Congress allows National Archivist to move Nixon’s presidential papers to Yorba Linda, with Nixon Library joining the Presidential Library System. Process expected to take several years.
May 29, 2004 Archibald Cox dies at age 92; Sam Dash dies at age 79
July 24, 2004 Fred LaRue dies at age 76
June 1, 2005 Vanity Fair article in which Mark Felt’s daughter reveals he was Deep Throat.
April 28, 2005 Planned conference on Nixon as Commander-in-Chief, cancelled when Foundation withdrew funding due to lack of expected audience.
April 26, 2006 Shepard and Naftali initiate oral history project.
July 11, 2007 Nixon Library officially joins NARA’s Presidential Library System
February 22, 2008 Judge Gerhard Gesell dies at age 82.
June 17, 2009 John Dean does re-issue of Blind Ambition [book] presentation at Nixon Library.
July, 2009 Ron Walker replaces John Taylor at Nixon Foundation.
May 19, 2010 Naftali submits first and final Watergate Exhibit.
May 24, 2010 Shepard presents Five Watergate Conspiracies at Nixon Library
April 1, 2011 Watergate exhibit opens at Nixon Library.
November 10, 2011 Nixon Watergate grand jury testimony released to the public.
February 9, 2012 Shepard presents Due Process and the Watergate Trials at Nixon Library.
February 14, 2013 RN centennial exhibit opens at the Nixon Library.